Glycolysis is the first phase of a series of reactions for the catabolism of carbohydrates. Catabolism is the breakdown of larger molecules into its respective smaller constituents. Glycolysis is the first part of cellular respiration that generates pyruvate to be used in either anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen or in the TCA cycle … Continue reading Glycolysis

Blood Components 101

This will serve as a guide for the specific indications, storage requirements and stability of the different blood components. Storage Whole Blood, Packed Red Blood Cells: 1-6 degrees Celsius. Plasma, Cyroprecipitated AHF: -18 degrees Celsius. Platelets: 20-24 degrees Celsius with continuous gentle agitation. Granulocytes: 20-24 degrees Celsius without agitation. Stability Whole Blood: When refrigerated a … Continue reading Blood Components 101

Laboratory Equation Guide

SI Units: The International System of Units is a system devised around the convenience of the number ten. It is the worlds most widely used system of measurement in science. Temperature SI Standard units are Kelvin (K) Celsius = K-273 Kelvin = Celsius+273 Temperature Conversions Celsius = 5/9 (F - 32) Fahrenheit = (9/5 x … Continue reading Laboratory Equation Guide

Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)

Protein electrophoresis measures the specific proteins in the body by using electrical charge to separate them. Serum proteins are either albumin or they are globulins. Globulins are then further delegated into either gamma globulins or alpha-1, alpha-2, or beta globulins. The normal ranges for each protein fraction in the serum is as follows; Albumin: 3.6-5.2 … Continue reading Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)


The major hemoglobin that is present in adults is hemoglobin A (HbA). This is a heterotetramer that consists of one pair of alpha-globin chains and one pair of beta-globin chains. Alpha-globin chains are encoded by two copies of the alpha gene present on chromosome 16. Beta-globin chains are driven by one gene on chromosome 11. … Continue reading Thalassemias