Glycolysis is the first phase of a series of reactions for the catabolism of carbohydrates. Catabolism is the breakdown of larger molecules into its respective smaller constituents. Glycolysis is the first part of cellular respiration that generates pyruvate to be used in either anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen or in the TCA cycle in aerobic respiration which yields useable energy for cells. This will be a general outline of the steps in glycolysis.

The whole process can be broken down into an energy investment phase where ATP is being used and an energy payoff phase where ATP is being generated. Fructose-1,6-biphosphate is where the energy investment phase ends. That is where the last ATP has to be used for energy to drive glycolysis.

A simple equation can be remembered as a summary of glycolysis.

Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate ions + 2 NAD+ —-> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H20 + 2 H+.


In the first step of glycolysis an addition of a high energy phosphate from ATP yields glucose-6-phosphate and ADP. This step is initialized by the enzyme hexokinase. G6P is more reactive than glucose.

In the next step, glucose-6-phosphate is converted to its isomer, fructose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucose isomerase.

In the third step of glycolysis, fructose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-1,6-biphosphate by phosphofructokinase (PFK) and the addition of ATP. This is the committed step, meaning that fructose-1,6-biphosphate MUST be converted to pyruvate. This is also the end of the energy investment phase of glycolysis.

Fructose-1,6-biphosphate is converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate catalyzed by aldolase. Glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate maintains a reversible reaction with dihydroxyacetone phosphate through triode phosphate isomerase. The resulting reaction generates two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. A key point going forward is that two molecules of each substrate are produced.

Each G3P molecule gains an inorganic phosphate and with the addition of NAD+ to form the energized carrier molecules NADH. The resulting reaction catalyzed by glyeraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase generates two molecules of 1,3-bisphophoglycerate which yield two high energy phosphates.

Through the addition of two low energy ADP molecules and the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase, the two molecules of 1,3-bisphophoglycerate are converted to 3-phosphoglycerate and yields two molecules of ATP. This reaction is called the break even reaction because at this point the energy input is equal to the energy output. Two molecules of ATP were expended and at this step there was a generation of two ATP molecules.

In the next step the two molecules of 3-phosphoglyercate are converted to 2-phosphoglycerate through the enzymatic properties of phosphoglycerate mutase.

The molecules of 2-phosphoglycerate are converted to phosphoenolpyruvate catalyzed by enolase. This step yields H20 molecules.

In the final step of glycolysis, the molecules of phosphoenolpyruvate are converted to pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvate kinase. ATP is generated from the addition of ADP and the two high energy phosphates from the molecules of phosphoenolpyruvate.

Upon the completion of glycolysis, the pyruvate molecules can be oxidized to carbon dioxide in cellular respiration to generate 28 molecules of ATP.

The NADH that is produced is turned back into NAD+ to drive further glycolysis. There are two ways to accomplish this. In the presence of oxygen NADH passes it electrons into the electron transport chain, which regenerates NAD+ for use in glycolysis. In the absence of oxygen, cells regenerate NAD+ by undergoing fermentation.


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