Bloods Journey Through the Heart

The heart drives the circulatory system as it pushes blood through an intricate system of blood vessels including arteries, capillaries, and veins. Blood is essential as it carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the tissues and transports waste products like carbon dioxide away where it is expelled from the body. The heart is hollow … Continue reading Bloods Journey Through the Heart

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a physiological role in regulating blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. The two together have an influence on cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. There are three important components to the RAAS; renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone. Stimulation of renin from the juxtaglomerular cells (JG) is stimulated by sympathetic nerve activation … Continue reading Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Biotin Interference on Diagnostic Testing

Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 is a coenzyme that is involved in carbon dioxide transfer in carboxylase reactions. The USDA recommended dietary reference intake for biotin is 30 ug per day which should mostly come from food. The last few years biotin has been marketed heavily as a beauty supplement. It is used in … Continue reading Biotin Interference on Diagnostic Testing

Liver Enzymes

The liver is the largest internal organ. It is incredibly functionally complex. It carries out more than 500 different functions that include detoxification, protein synthesis and chemical synthesis to aid in digestion. Some of the livers main functions will be talked about. Bile produced by the liver aids in digestion in the small intestine. It … Continue reading Liver Enzymes

Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is acute or chronic symptomatic or even sometimes asymptomatic inflammation of the liver. Usually the infection is self-limiting and clears within 12 weeks, but in immunocompromised patients it can pose serious complications and development of systemic problems. All viral hepatitities can lead to liver cirrhosis if untreated. There are important serological markers involving … Continue reading Viral Hepatitis