Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm or blood cancer where the bone marrow produces too many erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and granulocytes, resulting in panmyelosis. The cancer is caused by a mutation in the JAK2 gene. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a role in signaling in the type II cytokine receptor family. … Continue reading Polycythemia Vera

Thyroid 101

The thyroid gland is one branch of the endocrine system that is located in the neck that has two lobes connected by an isthmus. The hypothalamus secretes Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH acts on the thyroid gland to secrete the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). … Continue reading Thyroid 101

Pheochromocytoma Workup

A pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that arises from the chromatin cells of the adrenal medulla. Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma arise from the sympathetic ganglia and are referred to as catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas. These neoplasms are very rare, occurring in less than 0.2% of the patients. Most catecholamine-secreting tumors are sporadic and occur in the fourth to fifth … Continue reading Pheochromocytoma Workup

Blood System Portfolio: Rhesus System

The Rhesus blood system is arguably the second most important blood system behind the ABO system. There are 50 defined blood group antigens, among which the five antigens; D, C, E, c, e are the most significant. Individuals who are Rh positive possess the D antigen and those who are Rh negative lack the D … Continue reading Blood System Portfolio: Rhesus System

Pregnancy and Fetal Testing

There are specific markers that correlate to normal or abnormal fetal health that are important to know. Its also important to understand the normal course of a pregnancy and also the normal circadian rhythm of hormones that are involved in ovulation and a womens' menstrual cycle. Both the anterior pituitary and ovaries are involved in … Continue reading Pregnancy and Fetal Testing