There are many different types of media that are used in a microbiology laboratory. Generally speaking there are three types of media used; selective, differential, and supportive or nutritive.
Selective media are manufactured to support the growth of one type of microorganism while inhibiting the growth of another, in other words, it selectively grows one type of microorganism. It is not uncommon or this media to contain antimicrobials, dyes such as crystal violet, or even alcohol. Some of the more routine selective media types are EMB agar, mannitol salt agar, MAC, and a PEA agar.
Differential media is used to distinguish microorganisms from one another based on growth characteristics that are evident when growth is obtained. There are visible differences between microorganisms when growth is achieved. One fo the more common differential media used is the MacConkey agar. This differentiates between lactose fermenters and non-lactose fermenters.
Supportive media is used to support the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. They are typically non-selective because they want to achieve growth of a wide array of microorganisms. Some more common ones include the sheeps blood agar, as well as the chocolate agar. It has the added X and V factors to support the growth of Haemophilus influenzae.