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Erythropoietin (EPO)

The role of red blood cells is to carry oxygen. Just like anything in the body, this is tightly regulated by a mechanism that monitors whether or not there is adequate oxygen getting to tissues and other cells. Hypoxia is detected by the peritubular fibroblasts of the kidneys which causes erythropoietin (EPO) to be released. The EPO geneContinue reading Erythropoietin (EPO)

Donath-Landsteiner Antibodies

The history of the DL antibody goes back to the 1900's. It was one of the first recognized forms of immune mediated hemolysis and responsible for inducing Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH). PCH is a transient condition, meaning that it comes on when immunoglobulins (Antibodies) are formed in response to a viral, bacterial, or spirochete infection. … Continue reading Donath-Landsteiner Antibodies

Iron Deficiency and Microcytic Anemias

Iron is an essential element for oxygen transport within hemoglobin. Oddly enough it is the element that is missed the most in regards to adequate intake and proper nutrition. Over 1.62 billion people in the world are effected by anemia, which is most commonly caused by iron deficiency. Iron deficiency can be caused by chronic … Continue reading Iron Deficiency and Microcytic Anemias

Adrenal 101

The adrenal glands also known as the suprarenal glands. Supra meaning above, and renal meaning kidneys. So these glands are situated on top of the kidneys. These are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones, but most notable adrenaline, and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. Each gland has an outer cortex which is divided … Continue reading Adrenal 101

Iron Absorption and Metabolism

Iron is an essential element for almost all forms of life, but most important as an oxygen transporter. When iron is in its ferrous state, oxygen binds to it within the hemoglobin molecule allowing erythrocytes to circulate and deliver oxygen to all the human bodies cells and tissues. The human body also requires iron in … Continue reading Iron Absorption and Metabolism