Erythropoietin (EPO)

The role of red blood cells is to carry oxygen. Just like anything in the body, this is tightly regulated by a mechanism that monitors whether or not there is adequate oxygen getting to tissues and other cells. Hypoxia is detected by the peritubular fibroblasts of the kidneys which causes erythropoietin (EPO) to be released. The EPO geneContinue reading Erythropoietin (EPO)

Aspirin as a blood thinner?

Most people who have had previous cardiac issues, those who have even had a minor heart attack or survived a major infarction have often been prescribed to take an aspirin daily. To tackle this issue, its important to understand what a heart attack or an infarction actually is. Usually blood travels to the lungs, it … Continue reading Aspirin as a blood thinner?

Thyroid 101

The thyroid gland is one branch of the endocrine system that is located in the neck that has two lobes connected by an isthmus. The hypothalamus secretes Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH acts on the thyroid gland to secrete the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). … Continue reading Thyroid 101

Pheochromocytoma Workup

A pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that arises from the chromatin cells of the adrenal medulla. Extraadrenal pheochromocytoma arise from the sympathetic ganglia and are referred to as catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas. These neoplasms are very rare, occurring in less than 0.2% of the patients. Most catecholamine-secreting tumors are sporadic and occur in the fourth to fifth … Continue reading Pheochromocytoma Workup

Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the first phase of a series of reactions for the catabolism of carbohydrates. Catabolism is the breakdown of larger molecules into its respective smaller constituents. Glycolysis is the first part of cellular respiration that generates pyruvate to be used in either anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen or in the TCA cycle … Continue reading Glycolysis