Adrenal 101

The adrenal glands also known as the suprarenal glands. Supra meaning above, and renal meaning kidneys. So these glands are situated on top of the kidneys. These are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones, but most notable adrenaline, and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. Each gland has an outer cortex which is divided … Continue reading Adrenal 101

Bilirubin Metabolism

Bilirubin is a metabolite of heme. It serves as a means to excrete unwanted heme, which is derived from various heme-containing proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various P450 enzymes. Bilirubin is also notable for providing the color to bile, stool, and to a lesser extent the urine. Its produced by a two-stage reaction that … Continue reading Bilirubin Metabolism

Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the bodies energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which there is adequate glucose breakdown. In most cases, ketosis results from a high metabolism of fatty acids which are converted to ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are formed from … Continue reading Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

Pregnancy and Fetal Testing

There are specific markers that correlate to normal or abnormal fetal health that are important to know. Its also important to understand the normal course of a pregnancy and also the normal circadian rhythm of hormones that are involved in ovulation and a womens' menstrual cycle. Both the anterior pituitary and ovaries are involved in … Continue reading Pregnancy and Fetal Testing

The Pseudohyponatremia Debacle

Measurement of electrolytes in a sample of plasma is probably one of the most common tests that is performed. Every patient who gets blood drawn will also get a Chem 7 or CP13 which will include an analysis of electrolytes. There are two different technological approaches to measuring electrolytes, depending on what kind of chemistry … Continue reading The Pseudohyponatremia Debacle