Cells Cells Cells!

The immune system is the host defense system against foreign pathogens. It is an extremely adept system comprised of the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system, as well as complement. For more information on those two systems as a whole, review part one of the immune system. This part of the immune system … Continue reading Cells Cells Cells!

Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)

Protein electrophoresis measures the specific proteins in the body by using electrical charge to separate them. Serum proteins are either albumin or they are globulins. Globulins are then further delegated into either gamma globulins or alpha-1, alpha-2, or beta globulins. The normal ranges for each protein fraction in the serum is as follows; Albumin: 3.6-5.2 … Continue reading Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a physiological role in regulating blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. The two together have an influence on cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. There are three important components to the RAAS; renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone. Stimulation of renin from the juxtaglomerular cells (JG) is stimulated by sympathetic nerve activation … Continue reading Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is acute or chronic symptomatic or even sometimes asymptomatic inflammation of the liver. Usually the infection is self-limiting and clears within 12 weeks, but in immunocompromised patients it can pose serious complications and development of systemic problems. All viral hepatitities can lead to liver cirrhosis if untreated. There are important serological markers involving … Continue reading Viral Hepatitis

Overview of the Immune System; Part One

The overall function of the immune system is to prevent or limit infection. It is essential for survival. Multiple organ systems, cells, and proteins are involved in the immune response. It is the most complex system that the human body has. The immune system is differentiated into two directions. Innate or non-specific immunity or Acquired (specific) … Continue reading Overview of the Immune System; Part One