An antibody or immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein produced primarily by plasma cells of the humoral immune system. They are used to recognize and neutralize any foreign antigens or pathogens. An antibody is identical to the B-cell receptor of the cell that secretes it except for a small portion of the C-terminus of the … Continue reading The Antibody
This article will review basic immunology principles by defining key terms and explaining different techniques and phenomenons. Key Definitions Sensitization is the basic reaction of an antigen and an antibody binding. During an antigen:antibody reaction, the antigen or the antibody can be measured using a variety of methods. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. … Continue reading The Precipitation Curve
The immune system is the host defense system against foreign pathogens. It is an extremely adept system comprised of the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system, as well as complement. For more information on those two systems as a whole, review part one of the immune system. This part of the immune system … Continue reading Cells Cells Cells!
Protein electrophoresis measures the specific proteins in the body by using electrical charge to separate them. Serum proteins are either albumin or they are globulins. Globulins are then further delegated into either gamma globulins or alpha-1, alpha-2, or beta globulins. The normal ranges for each protein fraction in the serum is as follows; Albumin: 3.6-5.2 … Continue reading Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPE)
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a physiological role in regulating blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. The two together have an influence on cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. There are three important components to the RAAS; renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone. Stimulation of renin from the juxtaglomerular cells (JG) is stimulated by sympathetic nerve activation … Continue reading Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System