The Central Dogma of Life

All cells within a complex multicellular organism such as a human being contain DNA. All the DNA together make up that organisms genome. There are many different types of cells within a complex organism. What, then makes a cardiomyocyte different than a hepatocyte? The answer lies within how each cell controls its genome. DNA consists … Continue reading The Central Dogma of Life

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA)

The first step in any ELISA assay is the immobilization of the antigen within the sample to the wall of the wells within a microtiter plate. These microtiter plates are usually 96-wells. This is by direct adsorption to the plates surface or by using a capture antibody. The capture antibody has to be specific to … Continue reading Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA)

Cardiac Markers

Approximately every 42 seconds an American will suffer from a myocardial infarction. A MI occurs in a hypoxic state and sections of the heart are unable to get the oxygen it needs. According to the CDC about 610,000 die of heart disease in the United States every year, an occurrence of about 1 in every … Continue reading Cardiac Markers

Lactate Dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LD, LDH) is an enzyme that is found in all cells in all tissues of the body. It catalyzes the reversible conversion of lactate to pyruvic acid in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. It is released from various anatomical sites of the body in response to cellular injury and damage. It is used as a … Continue reading Lactate Dehydrogenase

Case Study Mini-Series; Diagnosis

The patient was diagnosed with subclinical DIC because complications from Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) The characteristic chromosomal translocation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia is the break and fusion of the PML gene located on chromosome 15 and the RARA gene located on chromosome 17. This results in a t(15;17) which is detectable in more than 90% … Continue reading Case Study Mini-Series; Diagnosis