Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the bodies energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which there is adequate glucose breakdown. In most cases, ketosis results from a high metabolism of fatty acids which are converted to ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are formed from … Continue reading Ketosis and Ketoacidosis

The Precipitation Curve

This article will review basic immunology principles by defining key terms and explaining different techniques and phenomenons. Key Definitions Sensitization is the basic reaction of an antigen and an antibody binding. During an antigen:antibody reaction, the antigen or the antibody can be measured using a variety of methods. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. … Continue reading The Precipitation Curve

Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm or blood cancer where the bone marrow produces too many erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and granulocytes, resulting in panmyelosis. The cancer is caused by a mutation in the JAK2 gene. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a role in signaling in the type II cytokine receptor family. … Continue reading Polycythemia Vera

Thyroid 101

The thyroid gland is one branch of the endocrine system that is located in the neck that has two lobes connected by an isthmus. The hypothalamus secretes Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH acts on the thyroid gland to secrete the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). … Continue reading Thyroid 101

Blood System Portfolio: Rhesus System

The Rhesus blood system is arguably the second most important blood system behind the ABO system. There are 50 defined blood group antigens, among which the five antigens; D, C, E, c, e are the most significant. Individuals who are Rh positive possess the D antigen and those who are Rh negative lack the D … Continue reading Blood System Portfolio: Rhesus System