Bilirubin Metabolism

Bilirubin is a metabolite of heme. It serves as a means to excrete unwanted heme, which is derived from various heme-containing proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various P450 enzymes. Bilirubin is also notable for providing the color to bile, stool, and to a lesser extent the urine. Its produced by a two-stage reaction that … Continue reading Bilirubin Metabolism

Thalassemias

The major hemoglobin that is present in adults is hemoglobin A (HbA). This is a heterotetramer that consists of one pair of alpha-globin chains and one pair of beta-globin chains. Alpha-globin chains are encoded by two copies of the alpha gene present on chromosome 16. Beta-globin chains are driven by one gene on chromosome 11. … Continue reading Thalassemias

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a generalized activation of homeostasis secondary to a systemic disease. There are multiple different diseases that can activate different homeostatic factors that can contribute to DIC. Conditions such as physical trauma and endothelial cell damage exposing tissue factor that finds its way into circulation; or being exposed to tissue factor … Continue reading Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation